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Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz was a Cuban communist revolutionary politician, a Marxist–Leninist and Cuban nationalist. Castro governed the Republic of Cuba as First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba from 1961 until 2011, Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President of the Council of State and Council of Ministers from 1976 to 2008. Castro also served as the Commander-in-chief of the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces. Under his administration, Cuba became a one-party communist state, while industry and business were nationalized and state socialist policies were implemented throughout society. Born in Birán, Oriente as the son of a wealthy Spanish farmer, Castro adopted leftist anti-imperialist ideas while studying law at the University of Havana. After participating in rebellions against right-wing governments in the Dominican Republic and Colombia, he planned the overthrow of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista, launching a failed attack on the Moncada Barracks in 1953.