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Southern fried chicken, also known simply as fried chicken, is a dish consisting of chicken pieces which have been coated in a seasoned batter and pan-fried, deep fried, or pressure fried. The breading adds a crisp coating or crust to the exterior of the chicken while retaining juices in the meat. Broiler chickens are most commonly used. The first dish known to have been deep fried was fritters, which were popular in the European Middle Ages. However, it was the Scottish who were the first Europeans to deep fry their chicken in fat. Meanwhile, a number of West African peoples had traditions of seasoned fried chicken. Scottish frying techniques and West African seasoning techniques were combined by enslaved Africans and African-Americans in the American South.