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The Koch family is an American family engaged in business, best known for their political activities and their control of Koch Industries, the second-largest privately owned company in the United States. The family business was started by Fred C. Koch, who developed a new cracking method for the refinement of heavy crude oil into gasoline. Fred's four sons litigated against each other over their interests in the business during the 1980s and 1990s. By 2019, Charles G. Koch and the late David H. Koch, commonly referred to as the Koch brothers, were the only ones of Fred Koch's four sons still with Koch Industries. Charles and David Koch built a political network of libertarian-conservative donors and the brothers funneled financial revenue into television and multi-media advertising.